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  • jbenne92 2:26 pm on April 12, 2019 Permalink | Reply  

    Interactive map of investments through BRI 

    https://www.merics.org/en/bri-tracker/interactive-map

     
  • jbenne92 10:48 pm on April 9, 2019 Permalink | Reply  

    A closer look at Energy 

     
  • jbenne92 10:32 pm on April 2, 2019 Permalink | Reply  

    BRI investment projects 

    Lower Sesan Two Hydropower Dam

    Cambodia

    Energy

    Central Asia–China gas pipeline

    Multiple

    Energy

    Diamer-Bhasha Dam

    Pakistan

    (More …)

     
  • jbenne92 9:45 pm on April 2, 2019 Permalink | Reply  

    MOVING THE GREEN BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE: FROM WORDS TO ACTIONS 

    This report provides an initial overview of the degree
    to which Chinese energy and transportation investments in the BRI countries from 2014 to 2017 align
    with the green priorities communicated in BRI countries’ Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).
    Our analysis is based on a comprehensive review of
    data on bank loans and cross-border investments by
    the Silk Road Fund and Chinese enterprises.

    Click to access GDP-and-WRI-BRI-MovingtheGreenbelt.pdf

     
  • jbenne92 2:23 pm on March 8, 2019 Permalink | Reply  

    Domestic Vs. International BRI Green Efforts: 

    *Information taken from BNP paribas research

    BRI to embrace sustainable development, but…

    In its BRI infrastructure projects, China is attempting to embrace five of the 17 United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which were adopted in 2015:

    • SDG #6: Clean water and sanitation – ensure access to water and sanitation for all people
    • SDG #7: Affordable and clean energy – ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all people
    • SDG #11: Sustainable cities and communities – make cities and human settlements safe, inclusive, resilient and sustainable
    • SDG #13: Climate action – combat climate change and its impact urgently
    • SDG #17: Partnership for the goals – strengthen the means of implementation and revitalise the global partnership for sustainable development.

    However, one of China’s largest investment areas in emerging markets is coal-fired power plants. The Global Environment Institute found that between 2001 and 2016, China developed 240 coal-fired power projects in 68 countries, most of them associated with the BRI since its inception in 2013. These projects provide a total of 251 GW of generating capacity, equivalent to about 25% of China’s domestic coal-fired capacity. This is far from being in line with China’s pledge for a green BRI outcome.

    Beijing has yet to establish the principles needed to guide environmentally sound investment abroad. Its export of dirty-energy technology undercuts the credits it gets for going green in its domestic energy initiatives. It will have to embrace responsible investment rules to fend off international criticism of its lack of sustainable growth and investment strategies.

    China has also stepped up the pace of environmental innovation, with initiatives in carbon pricing, clean-energy finance and electric vehicles. In June 2017, it rolled out a pilot programme for green finance in five provinces to promote a USD 440 billion spending scheme on environmental protection projects. In November 2017, it launched the long-awaited carbon emissions trading scheme, which could become the world’s largest carbon market.

    Chinese banks have started to issue BRI-related green bonds, the standard fixed-income instruments from which the proceeds are designated for sustainable projects. The Industrial and Commercial Bank of China issued its first One-Belt-One–Road Climate Bonds in Luxemburg in September 2017, raising more than USD 2 billion for financing and re-financing projects in low-carbon and low-emission transport, renewable energy, energy efficiency and water resources management. At the same time, China hosted an international Green Finance Forum in Beijing to discuss green finance tools and products, environmental risk analysis and how to enhance the social and environmental preferences of those investing in the BRI countries.

    China’s green bond market is among the largest in the world, with its share in global green bond issuance rising from only 2.4% of the world total in 2015 to more than 23% in 2017, according to some estimates (exhibit 2). Other green financing tools and investment instruments are being developed, including green loans, green securities, green insurance, green banks and green funds. They share the common characteristics of:

     
    • Irina Mezurnishvili 3:46 pm on March 9, 2019 Permalink | Reply

      Jess, could you please provide the link to the source? thanks!

      Like

  • jbenne92 2:18 pm on March 8, 2019 Permalink | Reply  

    How Sustainable is the BRI? Is China’s stance on the “Green Belt” full of Empty Promises 

    What China wishes to achieve:

    Sustainable development zones

    Earlier this year, the Chinese government approved three sustainable development zones, which will implement the United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals:

    • Shenzhen

    Shenzhen is China’s innovation engine. This zone will integrate technologies in sewage treatment, waste utilization, ecological restoration, and artificial intelligence to solve issues from resource management to pollution.

    • Guilin

    This zone will focus on innovations that tackle desertification, creating solutions that can be replicated by other regions facing the threat of encroaching deserts.

    • Taiyuan

    Targeting air and water pollution, this zone will foster innovative solutions that can be replicated by regions relying on resource extraction.

    Tech companies as green innovators

    China’s technology giants play a vital role in sustainable development. Tencent, Baidu and Alibaba are among the world’s top 10 internet companies. Online technology – particularly e-commerce, internet banking and social media – is accelerating the pace of change.

    For example, Ant Financial, a banking subsidiary of Alibaba, is a founding partner of the Green Digital Finance Alliance. This alliance aims to use digital technology to advance green finance.

    Over 200 million of Ant’s users signed up to Ant Forest, an app that gamifies carbon footprint tracking. The app prompts users to cut greenhouse gas emissions in real life, demonstrating the massive potential of Fintech for supporting sustainable development. By the end of January 2017, the approach had saved 150,000 tonnes of CO2.

    Lankang- Mekong Cooperation –

    River Connecting South East Asia- Controversial due to the fact that the Dams being built on the river will have large environomental implications.

    “China has launched an ambitious domestic program to develop a green financial system and is making green finance one of the priorities of its G20 presidency,” Al Tayer said. “As such, China was selected to launch this effective platform.” Read about Chinas involvement here: https://worldgreeneconomy.org/about/

    Green Bonds: https://www.globalcapital.com/article/b14xk6w8gd2wxb/belt-and-road-chinas-new-green-finance-laboratory.

    China has found itself at the forefront of embracing green
    financing tools such as Green Bonds and Climate Bonds, while it has worked at introducing guidelines for its companies to help manage environmental risks of overseas projects.As befitting such a prominent player in renewable energy, China is a leader in green bond issuances. Still in its infancy, onshore green bond issuances hit US$36 billion in 2016,
    accounting for nearly 40% of global green bond issuance

    Click to access 42340_ENG_BRI_Whitepaper_brochure-A4_260618_Online.pdf

    China- Pakistan Cooperation: China Three Gorges Corporation, builder and operator of the world’s biggest hydroelectric power project – the Three Gorges Dam – has vowed to increase energy supplies to economies related to the Belt and Road Initiativ. CTG said it plans to invest $6 billion in countries and regions participating in the initiative in the next five years, involving more than 5 million kilowatts of new installed capacity, according to Wang Shaofeng, executive vice-president of China Three Gorges International Corporation, the overseas unit of the corporation.

    “Located at an intersection of the Belt and Road Initiative, Pakistan is one of the most important investment markets for CTG,” said Zhang Hongxun, director of the operation and management department at China Three Gorges International Corp.

    Conclusion: The above mentioned pacts or cooperations signal that china is moving in the green direction but we must research to what extent there is action being taken. A problem is that it may be too soon seeing as many of the cooperations or verbal promises were only established in 2018

     
  • jbenne92 6:46 pm on March 6, 2019 Permalink | Reply  

    Please read before interview: 

    Click to access 2017RP12_ses.pdf

     
  • jbenne92 6:06 pm on March 3, 2019 Permalink | Reply  

    Asian Super Grid= Global Energy Interconnection? ( GEI) 

    “China’s concerted efforts to research, develop and invest in renewable energy and clean transport offer its industry the opportunity to overtake US and European companies, which have been dominant in sectors such as cars and energy machinery. This will give China a comparative advantage in trade and lend impetus to the country’s economic growth,” it adds.

    Kenya, like majority African nations, has witnessed increased Chinese foothold over local mega infrastructure projects such as railroads and motor highways, funded through Chinese loans. The projects, some of which have touched off concerns over a possible seizure of Nairobi’s strategic assets should the loans be defaulted, are seen as part of China’s modern-day expansionism strategyThe Global Energy Interconnection (GEI) initiative, originally developed by Liu Zhenya, the chairman of the Chinese State Grid Corporation, is dedicated to promoting global energy interconnections in a sustainable manner.

    The GEI is proposed to take the form of a backbone grid, first throughout Asia and then expanding globally. The first phase would consist of six ultra-high voltage grids that span the Asian continent, which GEI estimates will require a US$38 trillion investment.[1]

    The GEI is part of the broader Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). The BRI is a Chinese state-backed program that intends to boost trade and economic growth across Asia through the development of infrastructure projects. China Development Bank, China’s primary policy-based lending institution, has already granted US$160 billion in loans to countries involved in the BRI process.

     
  • jbenne92 5:46 pm on March 3, 2019 Permalink | Reply  

    Official Chinese Belt and Road Portal 

    https://eng.yidaiyilu.gov.cn/index.htm

     
  • jbenne92 5:43 pm on March 3, 2019 Permalink | Reply  

    Banks Financing BRI Projects: Role of Sustainable Finance 

    Differences in privately owned companies versus publicly owned.

    China Development Bank (CDB), China Eximbank, and
    the Big Four state-owned commercial banks—Agricultural Bank of China (ABC), Bank of China (BOC), China
    Construction Bank (CCB), and Industrial and Commercial
    Bank of China (ICBC)—are the leading Chinese banks currently financing projects in BRI countries. The six banks
    have accumulated rich experience financing domestic
    infrastructure and have been increasingly expanding their
    overseas business since China issued its “Go Global” policy
    in 2001 (Institute of International Finance 2014). The participation of Chinese policy, development, and commercial
    banks in the BRI means that BRI countries have access to
    a wide range of financing options at different terms.
    The Chinese government established the SRF, which is
    primarily an equity investment fund, to complement bank
    financing for BRI countries. In 2014, China made an initial
    capital contribution of $40 billion and added another
    $14.5 billion in 2017, bringing the total capital to $54.5
    billion. In addition to the SRF, Chinese enterprises are
    another important source of equity investments. Following the announcement of the “Go Global” strategy, China’s
    OFDI, a measure of overseas equity investments, has been
    slowly increasing. After a brief pause after the 2008–09
    global financial crisis, Chinese OFDI accelerated, and in
    2016, China became the second-largest country in terms of
    OFDI flows (Figure 3)

     
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